An emerging method of classification known as the damage response framework seeks to incorporate the full scope of the host-pathogen interaction by gauging the effect on the host as a function of damage/benefit versus host immune response. CBC Radio Canada- Zika virus: what you need to know. D. โดย Dzianis_Rakhuba. Serology Test: It detect the presence of antibodies but are useful only after five days. The open reading frame of the Zika virus reads as follows: 5′-C-prM-E-NS1-NS2A-NS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-N​S5-3′ and codes for a polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved into capsid (C), precursor membrane (prM), envelope (E), and non-structural proteins (NS). There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available. [2] In 1968, isolation from human hosts occurred in residents of Nigeria. Zika virus is not as deadly, however, more than one and a half million people were infected since the beginning of the current outbreak [4]. Transmission occurs when an infected vector feeds on a host. Le virus Zika est l'agent infectieux à l'origine, chez l'homme, de l'infection à virus Zika.Il s'agit d'un virus à ARN monocaténaire de polarité positive, relevant donc du groupe IV de la classification Baltimore, et appartenant au genre Flavivirus.Il est notamment apparenté aux virus de la dengue, de la fièvre jaune, de l'encéphalite japonaise et du Nil occidental [3]. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) as a major public health threat has focused research on understanding virus biology and developing a suite of strategies for disease intervention. The first major outbreak, with 185 confirmed cases, was reported in 2007 in the Yap Islands. Vox Media, Inc.- Zika virus, explained in 6 charts and maps. CNN- Five things you need to know about Zika. Replication then takes place at intracellular compartments known as cytoplasmic viral factories in the endoplasmic reticulum resulting in a dsRNA genome. The core contains the RNA genome. The structure of Zika virus is similar to other known flavivirus structures, except for the ~10 amino acids that surround the Asn (154) glycosylation site in each of the 180 envelope glycoproteins that make up the icosahedral shell. 15 Apr. Darwish M, Hoogstraal H, Roberts T, Ahmed I, Omar F. (1983) A sero-epidemiological survey for certain arboviruses (Togaviridae) in Pakistan. (2015) Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. There has been one report of possible spread of the virus through blood transfusion and one report of possible spread of the virus through sexual contact. Next, the virus membrane fuses with the endosomal membrane and the ssRNA genome of the virus is released into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Non-segmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. 10794 bases long with two non-coding regions flanking regions known as the 5′ NCR and the 3′ NCR. Zika virus is transmitted from one people to another through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, mainly. They are primarily spread through arthropod vectors (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The virion surface contains envelope protein (E) dimers and membrane (M) proteins in icosahedral-like symmetry. However, there is no licensed vaccine or treatment currently available for ZIKV infections. Since it was first detected in a human in Nigeria in 1952, ZIKV has generally caused cases of human infections in Africa, Asia, and Oceania only rarely. 2016. http://www.newsweek.com/zika-virus-spread-america-united-states-who-paho-419212. only precautionary measures like, keeping ourselves away from mosquito bites, by keeping the surroundings clean. [2] NS1, NS3, and NS5 are large, highly-conserved proteins while the NS2A, NS2B, NS4A, and NS4B proteins are smaller, hydrophobic proteins. Travelers should take the basic precautions to protect themselves from mosquito bites. The structure of ZIKV follows that of other flaviviruses. This transmission includes a mosquito vector and a mammalian host. These cross-reactive results were more common in patients that denoted signs of previous flavivirus infection than patients with primary ZIKV infection. Flaviviridae is a family of viruses.Humans and other mammals serve as natural hosts. The fusion loop, in the EDII domain, is boxed and the conserved histidine in prM (H95 in Zika virus) is indicated. We know that subsequent dengue infections bring a risk of antibody-dependent disease enhancement. More on Zika virus here VIRION. A host-cell derived membrane lies sandwiched between the envelope proteins and the inner core. Zika virus (ZIKV) has reemerged recently to cause serious human disease. … Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped, icosahedral flavivirus that has structural and functional similarities to other human flavivirus pathogens such as dengue (DENV), West … In 1973, a patient with Zika fever presented with fever, joint pain, and headache but the rash was absent. Physical properties of virion. In 2015, Zika virus RNA was detected in the amniotic fluid of two fetuses, indicating that it had crossed the placenta and could cause a mother-to-child infection. Black arrows indicate the density between the inner RNA core and the viral membrane (double-ended arrow shows the inside … The virion is approximately 40 nm in diameter with surface projections that measure roughly 5-10 nm. IgM for ZIKV is typically detectable around 3-5 days after infection, but cross-reactivity with closely related dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses are possible. Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. Benedict’s Test- Principle, Composition,…, Widal Test- Introduction, Principle, Procedure,…, Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells, Nutrient Agar: Composition, Preparation and Uses, MacConkey Agar- Composition, Principle, Uses,…, Differences between Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria. The surface proteins are arranged in an icosohedral-like symmetry. For best diagnosis practices, serum samples should be analyzed as early as possible with a second test 2 to 3 weeks after that. Another way to look at ZIKV infection would be to plot a chart of damage versus time. E (blue) consists of two transmembrane helices [ (E)TM], two membrane-associated helices (EH), and three globular ectodomains (EDI, EDII, EDIII). Enveloped, spherical, about 50 nm in diameter. It was later identified in humans in 1968 for the first time in Nigeria. The virus particles are spherical and small in size (approximately 50 nm in diameter) with an electron-dense core approximately 30 nm in diameter. Cryo-EM structure of immature Zika virus. [5] The E protein composes the majority of the virion surface and is involved with aspects of replication such as host cell binding and membrane fusion. [10], Zika fever is the disease associated with ZIKV infection. On the contrary, vertical transmission is the result of mosquito populations passing on the virus to their offspring. It contains a nucleocapsid approximately 25-30 nm in diameter surrounded by a host-membrane derived lipid bilayer that contains envelope proteins E and M. The virion is approximately 40 nm in diameter with surface projections that measure roughly 5-10 nm. Created by Derek Lehman, student of Tyrrell Conway at the University of Oklahoma. Prior studies had established the structures of several of the DENV serotypes [3–7], WNV [8], and most recently JEV [9]. The pathogenesis of the virus is hypothesized to start with an infection of dendritic cells near the site of inoculation, followed by a spread to lymph nodes and the bloodstream. Reuters. [3] Horizontal transmission is the terminology given to transmission of viruses from mosquito vectors to mammalian hosts. [3] ZIKV causes a disease known as Zika fever, which is characterized by a macropapular rash covering the body, fever, joint pain, and malaise. However, Dr. Tom Frieden, director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that "There isn't any doubt that Zika causes microcephaly." The surface proteins are arranged in an icosahedral-like symmetry. Dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are clinically important members of the Flaviviridae family with an 11 kb positive strand RNA genome that folds to enable virus function. [6], The structure of ZIKV follows that of other flaviviruses. [8] Due to the oddity of transmission through sexual contact, further studies should be conducted to identify all possible reservoirs and insect vectors to further understand ZIKV transmission. The flavivirus virion consists of an envelope outer layer, formed by envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins on a lipid bilayer, and an internal core, formed by capsid (C) protein and genomic RNA. Since November, Brazil has seen nearly 4,000 cases of microcephaly in babies born to women who were infected with Zika during their pregnancies. [3] However, one study showed antibody to ZIKV in rodents. In all cases, symptoms were mild and typically self-resolved in the course of a week without the need for hospitalization or risk of severe complications. The RNA contains 10,794 nucleotides encoding 3,419 amino acids.The virus is inactivated by ether, sodium dexoxycholate and chloroform. Email. Dengue and Zika virus epidemics have been lapping each other around the globe. The biology of Zika virus. [9] For ZIKV, a variety of mosquitoes from the genus Aedes are viable vectors.These include A. africanus, A. aegypti, A. vitattus, A. furcifer, A. apicoargenteus, and A. luteocephalus. Transmission of ZIKV in nature is thought to follow that of other closely related flaviviruses. [3] Since then, multiple studies have confirmed ZIKV antibody in humans from a multitude of countries in Africa and parts of Asia. The cryo-EM map was fitted with the crystal structures of the precursor membrane and envelope glycoproteins and was shown to be similar to the structures of other known immature flaviviruses. Reducing mosquito populations and avoiding bites, which occur mainly during the day. Zika symptoms are similar to the symptoms of Dengue in a mild form: fever, rash, muscle and joint pain, headache and conjunctivitis [7]. [3], After returning from a research mission to Senegal, Dr. Brian Foy of the University of Colorado appeared to have passed ZIKV to his wife after sexual intercourse in 2008. [6], Since its first detection in Uganda, ZIKV has appeared in the following countries of Africa and Asia: Gabon, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Central African Republic, Cambodia, Micronesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, India, Thailand, Philippines, and Indonesia. The virus was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus macaque in the Zika Forest of Uganda. [6], The reproductive cycle of ZIKV follows that of other known flaviviruses. [4]. It protects the nucleic acid from digestion by enzymes, it also has these special sites that will allow the virion to … Musso D, Nhan T, Robin E, Roche C, Bierlaire D, Zisou K, Shan Yan A, Cao-Lormeau VM, Broult J. In addition, a fever was present as well as back pain and a general feeling of malaise. [12] A horizontal line down the middle of the graph represents an asymptomatic infection where the host is neither damaged or receives any benefit. Guardian News and Media Limited- Zika virus: what travellers need to know. Illustration of medicine, health, infographic - 67134162 Only recently has it caused explosive outbreaks in previously unaffected regions, first in Oceania and then in the Americas since 2015. The spread of the virus led to reports of health problems such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and possibly microcephaly, a disease in which babies are born with abnormally small heads and brains that have not developed properly. The Zika virus is a positive sense single-stranded RNA molecule 10794 bases long [2] with two non-coding regions flanking regions known as the 5' NCR and the 3' NCR. Cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structural studies revealed that the ZIKV particle has two unique features: a protruding N154 glycosylation site and a … There are 3174 cases and 38 deaths from microcephaly in Brazil as of 21 October 2015. Recent advances in cryoelectron microscopy have accelerated structure-function studies of … Viruses. It is then translated into a polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved to form all structural and non-structural proteins. [5] Located in the 3' NCR are 428 nucleotides that may play a part in translation, RNA packaging, cyclization, genome stabilization, and recognition. It was later identified in humans in 1968 for the first time in Nigeria. These symptoms are mild and usually last for 2-7 days. Group: Group IV ((+) ssRNA) Family: Flaviviridae Genus: Flavivirus Species: Zika virus. 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